Barriers, sandbags and concrete lions are among the preventive measures deployed in European city centres in the wake of a spate of vehicular terror attacks across the continent over the past year.
Following two such attacks in Barcelona and the nearby resort of Cambrils, experts cautioned that their low-tech nature and soft targets make them impossible to prevent altogether.
But in many countries roadside obstacles and beefed-up policing in crowded areas and city landmarks are seen as a way of reducing the risk.
Security barriers were hastily put up along the pavements on three bridges in central London in June, days after three attackers wearing fake suicide vests in a van struck pedestrians on London Bridge.
There have been several attacks using vehicles in France since a man rammed a truck into a crowd in the Mediterranean resort of Nice on July 14, 2016, killing 86 people and injuring 400.
Security measures have been more limited in Germany despite the Berlin Christmas market attack.
Concrete barriers were installed in front of some markets at the time but have since been taken away.
Belgian security officials said they have recommended setting up concrete barriers and other measures to protect soft targets like large concentrations of people, especially since the November 13, 2015, terror attacks in Paris.