Though Bangladesh’s contribution to the generation of greenhouse gas emissions is insignificant, Bangladesh is still trying to minimize the amount of emissions now and in the future, in addition to increasing resilience to the effects of climate change
According to the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report globally and in every region, climate change is occurring. By the world’s latest and most diligent scientific assessment of the physical basis of climate change, the report states change that are unparalleled in thousands if not hundreds of thousands of years.
It must happen immediately, as it highlights that there is still time to act. Restrictive climate change urges strong and sustained reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from human activities such as burning fossil fuels (Action, 2021).
The increases in monsoon precipitation due to warming from GHG emissions were prevented by the reduction of rainfall due to cooling from human-caused aerosol emissions over the 20th century (high confidence) over South Asia, East Asia, and West Africa.
Since the 1950s human influence has probable increased the chances of compound extreme events including the increases in the frequency of simultaneous heat waves and droughts on the global scale (high confidence). Also, weather of fire in some regions of all inhabited continents (medium confidence); and compound flooding in some locations (medium confidence) (IPCC, 2021)
There is a cumulative tendency of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide in arrears to human activities that show a substantial increase in atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Carbon dioxide is the most foremost GHGs (greenhouse gases) which accounted for 77% of the total global GHG emissions were CH4, N2O and other gases contributed 14%, 8%, and 1% respectively. All countries in the world emit more or less GHGs into the atmosphere which causes climate change and global warming (Sarkar, et al., 2015).
In Bangladesh, agriculture is the foremost contributor, with 39% of total emissions coming from the following agriculture sub-sector activities: paddy cultivation (32%), enteric fermentation (31%), manure left on pasture (12%), and the rest from five other sub-sectors.
The Energy sector is the second-highest emitter, and there are also energy sub-sectors as follows: heat production and electricity (46%), other fuel combustion (21%), construction and manufacturing (20%), and transportation (14%). Land-use change and forestry (LUCF) and Waste represent the third and fourth highest emitters, accounting for 31% and 18%, respectively (Sarkar, et al., 2015).
Though Bangladesh’s contribution to the generation of greenhouse gas emissions is insignificant, Bangladesh is still trying to minimize the amount of emissions now and in the future, in addition to increasing resilience to the effects of climate change.
Bangladesh is encouraging more energy and cost efficiency in the development and utilization of conventional energy. Importance is also given to the development of renewable energy, especially solar homes, and biogas plants so that emissions are as minor as possible without exposing the excess to energy.
As Bangladesh industrializes and develops coal reserves, the country will pursue the transfer of state-of-the-art technologies from developed countries so that it makes sure of the country follows a low carbon growth track.
Moreover, as part of the roadmap for NDC implementation, the power, industry and transport sectors have been considered to provide GHG emission reduction required to meet the overall GHG reduction targets. The other mechanism is REDD which is reducing emissions from Deforestation and Forestry.
Presently, Bangladesh has two Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects concerned with solar energy and waste management (BCCSAP, 2009). According the World Bank data, the CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita) is 0.5 and this is the most recent value (Washington, 2020).
It’s been obvious that the government of Bangladesh, with the support of global partners, has already initiated some plans, programmes, and activities to address mitigation and adaptation approaches to climate change.
Moreover, in the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) 2015, Bangladesh pledged to reduce unconditional emissions from various non-agricultural sectors including power, transport and industry, by 5% and conditionally by 15% of total emissions from business-as-usual level by 2030 (Begum, et al, 2019).
Bangladesh has also prepared a Roadmap and Action Plan for Implementing Bangladesh NDC to manage growing emissions without compromising the required developments and to allow Bangladesh to play its role in global efforts to limit temperature rise to two degrees or preferably 1.5 degrees above pre-industrial level.
Nevertheless, there is still need some concrete strategies and actions to reduce CO2 emissions in power generation, manufacturing, transportation, residential and other sectors. Therefore, mitigation preferences are important to reduce GHG emissions that can stimulate sustainable use, reduce global warming as well as environmental sustainability.
Rayha Afroz is an Educator at Fera Foundation Inc, Narayanganj, Bangladesh. Email: [email protected]
Mahmuda Akter is working as Senior Research Officer, Climate Change and Disaster Management Unit, SAJIDA Foundation, Email: [email protected]