Timeline of Sri Lanka crisis
Sri Lanka emerged from devastating civil war in 2009 only to be rocked by bombings in 2019 and then have its economy walloped by Covid-19
The two-month-old crisis in Sri Lanka deepened on Tuesday, with the government ordering troops to shoot looters on sight after a day of violence, which saw mobs torch houses belonging to the ruling Rajapaksa clan and the prime minister resign.
Protesters took to the streets in March demanding new leadership over acute shortages of food, fuel and other essentials.
The South Asian country emerged from a devastating civil war in 2009 only to be rocked by Islamist bombings in 2019 and then have its economy walloped by the Covid-19 pandemic, which left the island bereft of tourists.
Here is how the crisis unfolded:
March 31: President's home threatened
Hundreds of protesters, rallied by unidentified social media activists, try to storm the home of President Gotabaya Rajapaksa, demanding his resignation.
April 1: State of emergency
As protests spread, Rajapaksa declares a state of emergency, giving security forces sweeping powers to arrest and detain suspects.
April 2: Troops deployed, curfew
Sri Lanka declares a 36-hour nationwide curfew and deploys troops.
April 3: Cabinet resigns
Almost all of Sri Lanka's cabinet resigns at a late-night meeting, leaving Rajapaksa and his brother Mahinda -- the prime minister -- isolated.
April 4: More resignations
Gotabaya Rajapaksa offers to share power with the opposition under a unity administration led by him and Mahinda, but is rebuffed.
The governor of the central bank, having resisted calls to seek a bailout from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), announces his resignation.
April 5: President loses majority
President Rajapaksa's problems deepen as finance minister Ali Sabry resigns just a day after he was appointed.
The embattled leader loses his parliamentary majority as former allies urge him to quit. He lifts the state of emergency.
April 9: Biggest street protest
Tens of thousands march on the president's office, demanding that Rajapaksa resign.
April 10: Medicine shortages
Sri Lanka's doctors say they are nearly out of life-saving medicines, warning that the crisis could end up killing more than the coronavirus pandemic.
April 12: External debt default
The country announces it is defaulting on its external debt of $51 billion as a "last resort" after running out of foreign exchange to import desperately needed goods.
April 18: New government
The president unveils a new government, ousting two of his brothers and a nephew but keeping on his eldest brother Mahinda as prime minister.
April 19: First casualty
Police kill a protester, the first casualty of several weeks of anti-government protests.
The next day the IMF says it has asked Sri Lanka to restructure its colossal external debt before a rescue package can be agreed.
April 28: General strikes
A general strike brings the country to a standstill.
May 6: New state of emergency
After a second strike, Rajapaksa declares another state of emergency.
May 9: Day of violence
The government sends troops onto the streets after several people are killed in clashes between anti-government demonstrators and supporters of the premier bussed in from the countryside, who are accused of attacking peaceful protesters.
Mahinda Rajapaksa resigns as prime minister.
He has to be rescued by the military after thousands of protesters storm his residence in Colombo.
Demonstrators torch several homes belonging to his clan around the country as well as the homes of several pro-Rajapaksa politicians.
A lawmaker from the ruling party shoots two anti-government protesters, killing one, then takes his own life during a confrontation outside the capital.
Another ruling-party politician kills two protesters in the south of the island.
The authorities announce a nationwide curfew.
May 10: Shoot-to-kill orders
The defence ministry orders troops to shoot on sight anyone involved in looting or "causing harm to life".
But protesters continue to defy the government curfew.
The top police officer in Colombo is assaulted and his vehicle set ablaze.