Bangladesh has pledged an unconditional 5% greenhouse gas emissions cut by 2030, adding that with financing and technology support it will cut emissions by 15%.
The Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC), submitted by the world’s states to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), contains each country’s declaration on voluntary carbon emissions reductions.
As of Sunday, 43 countries including the top three greenhouse gas emitters – China, the United States and the European Union – had submitted their INDCs.
The US promised cuts of 26–28% from its 2005 level emissions by 2025 and the EU committed to cut 40% of its 1990 level emissions by 2030.
China said it intends to allow emissions to peak by 2030 before it reduces its carbon intensity by 60–65% of 2005 levels by 2030.
The collation of voluntary countries’ voluntary contributions to reducing emissions will be used to determined whether global warming can be limited to a 2 degrees Celsius rise by 2050.
Bangladesh’s INDC document identified the power, transport and industry sectors as the major sources of carbon emissions.
According to the INDC, greenhouse gas emissions in these sectors are expected to represent 69% of total emissions by 2030, an increase of 264% by 2030, from 64 million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (MtCO2e) in 2011 to 234 MtCO2e in 2030.
The document said Bangladesh will willingly reduce its emissions in the power, transport and industry sectors by 12 MtCO2e by 2030 or 5% below business-as-usual (BAU) emissions for those sectors by 2030.
It added that with adequate technology and financing from the international community, the country will reduce emissions by 15% below BAU emissions by 2030.
International support could help pay for the implementation of super-critical technology in coal-fired power plants, shift passenger traffic from road to rail, improve vehicle efficiency and reduce energy consumption in the industrial sector, an Environment and Forests Ministry official, who asked not to be named, said. That would help the country achieve 15% emissions cuts, he added.
According to the fifth assessment report of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Bangladesh was identified as being at specific risk from climate change due to exposure to sea-level rise and to extreme events like salinity intrusion, drought, erratic rainfall and tidal surges.
Bangladesh accounts for just 0.35% of global emissions but is highly vulnerable to climate change.
The report estimates that the country’s climate change adaptation costs for the period between 2015 and 2030 is around $42 billion.